Category: master degree

Quantitative Aptitude Plays an Important Role For Competitive Exams

Quantitative aptitude has become a compulsory subject for the preparation of competitive exams in India. Though the quantity of problems and pattern could be completely different across different exams, but the character of the problems are basically same in nature. Problems are often expected from quantitative aptitude are different sections like ratio’s, proportion, numbers, averages, profit and loss, time and work, percentage, surds, HCF and LCM of numbers, probability, partnership and etc.

To prepare for quantitative aptitude you can follow different books like Upkar’s quantitative aptitude, Kiran’s quantitative aptitude, R.S Agarwal etc. It is vital to collect all the formulas of different sections into one place. It will help you to take a quick look before the exams. And you should look down those formulas on a regular basis. As an example you must understand the formula to calculate the compound interest accrued on the same amount at the same rate in the same period of time on a given simple interest.

While practicing quantitative aptitude problem it’s additionally essential to practice various puzzle type questions as much as possible. Because solving these puzzle types of questions will give you confidence that you are well prepared and you can solve any problems related with this specific section. The problems of quantitative aptitudes can be solved in various ways. But it must be kept on your mind that in competitive exams the time span is short, so you have to take the shortest process to solve any problem.

There are several books available in the market. The better option is to choose a book that will makes you comfortable for solving any problems. So, buying a high quality of rich content book is not the key of success. Your understanding ability will play a vital role for choosing your career book.

These are all about Quantitative Aptitude portion, and now take a look at the other important portions. Regarding reasoning section, any questions answers with solution book will help you a lot. Other parts like English language, is also important for competitive exams. Synonyms, Antonyms, Fill in the blank, Error correction these are the major parts of English section. Also you can study grammar portions especially tense, verbs, group verbs, idioms for better result. And the last but a very vital portion is general knowledge. The questions of General knowledge portion are related with arts, literature, science, technology, sport, history, geography and current affairs. You can follow different news channels for latest news and affairs.

Books are OK, but you can follow some online websites that gives you tutorials, questions answers, quiz test on these portions.

Modern Uv-vis Spectroscopy: A Decade Of Fiber-optic Ccd Array Spectrophotometers

Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy continues to be one of the core disciplines practiced in nearly every analytical laboratory. Since its inception by Cary and Beckman in the 1940s, UV-VIS spectroscopy has revolutionized the field of molecular spectroscopy. Over the decades, numerous improvements have been made with respect to optical designs, including dual-beam optics, variable slit resolution, noise suppression, and integrated electronics.

The proliferation of personal computers in the 1980s resulted in significant improvements in data acquisition and instrument control. Streamlined instrument operation was facilitated through the use of dedicated software applications and the introduction of the user-friendly Windows? operating systems (Microsoft, Redmond, WA). Perhaps the most radical instrument design change that took place in the 1980s was the introduction of the diode array spectrophotometer by Hewlett-Packard, now Agilent Technologies (Palo Alto, CA). In contrast to traditional scanning monochromators that utilize a single photomultiplier tube, this novel spectrograph consisted of an array of photodiodes that permitted simultaneous, full-spectrum data acquisition in seconds. It was an instant hit among users.

The 1990s introduced two significant design additions in the form of charge-coupled device (CCD) array detectors and fiber-optic sampling devices. The typical CCD exhibits very high quantum efficiency and has readout noise that is 100 times lower than comparable photodiode arrays, permitting more efficient utilization of light and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. The use of fiber optics allowed the overall optical footprint to be more compact and thus reduced instrument size. In addition, fiber-optic sampling accessories could be configured for use as probes, making possible numerous, untypical spectroscopic applications such as colorimetry, radiometry, and spectroscopy of solid surfaces.

A quick glance at today?s instrumentation market indicates the popularity of the CCD as the detector of choice. CCD array systems now dominate almost every product line, including nearly all inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometers (atomic spectroscopy) and IR-Raman (molecular spectroscopy) systems sold. These charge-transfer devices (CTD) are composed of CCD, charge injection devices (CID), and CMOS array systems. The overwhelming benefits of either array type are simultaneous, multi-wavelength data acquisition resulting in the fastest, most versatile instruments available. Additionally, CTD array systems have few, if any, moving parts and offer better stability than single-element, vacuum tube detectors such as photomultiplier tubes (PMTs).

Detector options
The optical design and footprint of CCD array spectrophotometers differ considerably from typical scanning spectrophotometers. The larger footprint required for scanning spectrophotometers can be attributed to the increased number of optical surfaces necessary for dispersion and isolation of the desired wavelength prior to transmission through a given sample. In addition, numerous moving parts are necessary for performing scanning functions, slit selection, and beam splitting. In contrast, CCD array spectrophotometers transmit all wavelengths through the sample prior to wavelength isolation. The use of a fixed grating position results in a linear spectrum that is ideally suited for linear CCD arrays and eliminates moving parts within the spectrograph. Fewer moving parts result in improved reliability, thus minimizing instrument maintenance costs and the necessity for service.

Photodiode arrays typically utilize linear arrays consisting of 512 or 1024 photosensitive diodes. In comparison, the most common linear array CCD format currently used is a 2,048-pixel CCD. High-sensitivity, low-noise CCDs having either 2,048 or 3,648 pixels are used in high-performance spectrophotometers offered by S.I. Photonics (Tucson, AZ).

The resulting resolution of an array spectrophotometer is determined by the slit width, dispersion, and pixel binning. Because wavelength dispersion does not incorporate an exit slit, order-sorting filters are essential for linear CCD array UV-VIS spectrophotometers. Improved long-term precision and wavelength accuracy are achieved in CCD array systems by precise temperature control of the spectrograph optics. Fewer optical components result in a smaller spectrograph that can be temperature-stabilized to minimize expansion and contraction of optical components due to changes in ambient temperatures. Typical scanning instruments often have a relatively large optical footprint and do not lend themselves to affordable temperature control of optical components.

Light sources
Typical light sources utilized in UV-VIS spectroscopy include a quartz tungsten lamp for visible wavelengths from 350 to 1000 nm, while deuterium lamps are used for UV wavelengths below 350 nm. Xenon lamps have been used in less expensive systems but do not offer the light throughput, stability, or flexibility of dedicated deuterium and tungsten sources. For the highest performance when choosing an instrument, regardless of scanning or CCD array types, users should look for units that have separate, dedicated light sources.

Fiber optics
When fiber-optic capable systems were first introduced, many critics cited solarization of the optical fibers and photo-oxidation of samples as potential weaknesses of array spectrographs. These two myths were quickly dismissed since solarization-resistant fibers are typically used and sample analysis times are too short for photo-oxidation to occur.

In addition, these effects are virtually eliminated in high-quality optical designs incorporating optical shutters. The optical shutters used in the 400 Series spectrophotometers (S.I. Photonics) precisely control the exposure of light to the fiber-optic devices down to fractions of a second. As a result, the solarization that would normally occur during the first 10 hr of use would require the performance of more than 35,000 analyses before effects are realized. If the optical shutter happens to be positioned prior to sample illumination, photo-oxidation is eliminated entirely.

Sampling options
The sheer number of applications for the modern UV-VIS system is limitless. New uses are routinely discovered and implemented as a result of the versatility offered by the numerous fiber-optic sampling accessories. For example, traditional UV-VIS spectroscopy was limited to liquid matrices utilizing the standard 1-cm cuvettes. The flexible fiber-optic systems available today have introduced UV-VIS spectroscopy to an entire generation of new users. Dip probes now account for more than half of the units sold rather than traditional cuvettes. Fiber-optic reflectance probes allow for the sampling of solid surfaces and powders as well as aqueous matrices. When true diffuse reflectance is needed, integrating spheres are readily accommodated. Today?s systems serve users in scientific research, academic teaching, corporate and industrial QA/QC, pharmaceuticals, radiometry, colorimetry, criminal investigations, and agricultural applications.

Software
CCD array spectrophotometers have the inherent benefit of software flexibility. Because the entire spectrum is made available instantly and stored in memory, these data can be evaluated repeatedly in a number of fashions. Peak location, quantitation, multiple spectrum overlay, and timed acquisition are typical features included.

Timed acquisition
Timed acquisition and kinetics analysis are just two of the applications in which CCD spectrophotometers overwhelmingly outperform scanning systems. Simultaneous, full-spectrum data acquisition offers significant advantages over monochromatic systems, which severely limit data acquisition. Typical CCD spectrophotometers have integrated software capable of displaying spectra as a function of time. As a result, users can choose to view the entire wavelength region over time or simply select discrete wavelengths for temporal studies. These features are extremely valuable for chromatographic applications and fraction collection. Full-spectrum acquisition not only allows for confirmation of the parent compounds, but contaminating artifacts are also identified in real time. These data can then be presented as a three-dimensional plot, providing a powerful tool for drug and metabolite screening and other applications. Kinetics and dissolution testing are also widely used timed acquisition features.

Quantitative analysis
A significant advantage of CCD array systems over conventional scanning systems is that an array system allows for simultaneous background correction at user-selectable locations. Background correction is not available with single-channel scanning systems, which can only monitor one wavelength at a time. In addition, quantitative analysis can be performed at multiple wavelengths simultaneously as well.

Conclusion
The CCD array spectrophotometer of today represents the technological maturation of traditional UV-VIS spectroscopy. These systems are more versatile, reliable, and compact than ever before. In addition, the flexibility afforded through the use of fiber optics and CCD detection has introduced UV-VIS spectroscopy to a new generation of users and applications. New systems incorporating Peltier-cooled CCDs for improved fluorescence applications and dual-beam designs are sure to follow.

Dr. Prevatt is Vice President of S.I. Photonics, Inc., 1870 W. Prince Road, Suite 38, Tucson, AZ 85705; tel.: (520) 293-6911; fax: (520) 293-6911; e-mail: jprevatt@

UV-vis spectrophotometers

The Best Way To Save A Cigar

If there is one tragedy where a box of high-quality cigars is concerned it would be in their being ignored and going stale. While many people wrongly believe that a sealed box of cigars is impervious to many common problems, the fact of the matter is that they are not packaged to retain their best qualities. This is the reason that the best tobacconists keep their cigars in proper storage cabinets with humidifiers and hygrometers fully engaged.

Something to always consider when buying or receiving cigars is that they are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions and even when only recently removed from the store shelf they may be unsatisfactory for smoking right away. This might be due to the way they were stored in the tobacco shop, the conditions that existed during shipping, or the way your friend or family member kept them before giving them to you.

The next step requires you to buy a bottle of distilled water which is available at almost any pharmacy, and to dampen a brand new sponge with this water. Ring it out well and place this in the bag with the cigars, but be sure that the sponge is not in contact with any of them. Leave this setup in the closet for another week to ten days. This part of the process is going to slowly rehydrate the cigars without overdoing it and causing them to split wide open.

Once the initial rehydration process has been completed, you can then move them to the humidor that is actively humidifying its contents. Of course you still have another thirty days to wait before the cigars will have reached a decent level of moisture for smoking, but it is well worth the effort and the wait.

If you want to age cigars that have been dehydrated, you simply follow this same process and leave them in the humidor for another full calendar year. The humidity level must be at seventy percent and the ambient temperature at seventy degrees for the process to work successfully.

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Why Pursue A Small Business Online Course?

At one time or another, we all have probably seen those online business opportunity advertisements on the television, internet, or in print and thought of how nice the opportunity sounded. Then, we fell back to reality and thought that it was too good to be true. A lot of Internet and web business opportunities are scams. However, there are also so many online business opportunities that are legitimate.

For a lot of us, the idea of owning our own web business and working from home sounds perfect. You just need to know which online web business opportunity is a true opportunity and which ones are being advertised by opportunists. Fortunately, there exists a wide range of small business online courses that can guide you on starting an Internet business or a web business.

What to look for in a Web or Online Business Opportunity

Sometimes, it is not always easy to tell whether or not an online business opportunity is legitimate or a scam. However, there are certain things that you can look for in order to help you determine whether the opportunity is a scam or legitimate. Here is a list of positive things to look for:

See if the online business opportunity is credible. For instance, a lot of websites have received seals and other acknowledgments from business websites, magazines, etc. Normally, these are displayed on the website right where you can see them. If you do not automatically see them, scroll to the bottom of the page and see if there are any. If there are, research their acknowledger. This could be a good sign.
Check to see if the business online opportunity is registered with the Better Business Bureau. The Better Business Bureau now has a website and provides a seal to websites. However, just because a web business opportunity is registered does not mean that it does not exist. It still could be legit, but a registration with the Better Business Bureau is a positive sign.
Check to see if the Internet business opportunity offers you any free reading material, a small business online course or instructional DVD. If so, take them up on that opportunity.
See if you can speak to a representative directly over the phone. Have the representative answer any questions or concerns that you may have.

Things to Avoid in an Online Business Opportunity

Now that we have seen a list of positive things to look for in a web business opportunity, let?s get started on the list of things to avoid in a business online opportunity:

Avoid unrealistic claims. These can be claims of “getting rich quick?, “getting rich overnight?, “get rich by working from home with little or no effort? etc.
Do not buy in to testimonials. People tend to believe testimonials, even when they look staged just because it is illegal to have fake testimonials. Do not buy in to testimonials. Fake testimonials are illegal, but they still happen, a lot.
Just because an Internet business opportunity claims to be certified and trusted does not mean that it is. What is the opportunity certified with and trusted by who? Do your research.
If an opportunity tells you that you can begin making a lot of money, and it is all for free, you had better think again. We have all heard the old sayings: “It takes money to make money? and “nothing in this life is free.? Any real business takes some work to make money and taking up online business courses will help you differentiate the “wheat from the chaff?.

Don?t let promises of lots of money, yachts and fancy cars take you for a loop.

000-780 Latest Dumps

The 000-780 PureFlex Sales Specialist will have experience with the PureFlex family and hands on experience in customer environments, buying behavior, and solutions. A minimum of 3 months is recommended. A minimum of one year experience in one of these areas: servers, storage, networking, or systems management.

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Test 000-780: IBM certification PureFlex System Sales V1

Apply Information / Propose Solution

Describe and use applicable presales tools (i.e. – xRef, Competitive Sales Tool, Configuration and Options Guide (COG), and ServerProven, ATSMon, Power Calculator, Interoperability Guide, SSCT, Blue Horizon, Disk Magic, xConfig, eConfig).

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Masters Degree Online – Need An Mba Degree Online To Be Successful In Your Career

Ten years ago most of us did not think we could win an MBA primarily through an Internet connection. Today, such education is possible for the institutions to increase the number of regional higher education accredited provide complete MBA programs in a web-based mode of delivery, commonly known as “online learning”. Respected and well-known colleges and universities have made these graduate programs in education easily accessible to anyone who can meet their admission requirements and pay the tuition. Moreover, these programs online MBA programs are as academically challenging as on-campus counterparts. This important piece of paper you finally win as a postgraduate on-line is identical to the premium colleges and universities for students on campus.

Some people think it is not necessary that you have an MBA to be successful in his career in administrative position. Many managers and entrepreneurs are not owned an MBA degree but are rich and successful in their careers. So why do so many individuals who seek a higher realization of career pursuing a MBA? You need an MBA to be successful in achieving your career goal?

In my opinion, but you do not need a masters degree( MBA ) to succeed in your career but an MBA degree is going to be very beneficial for you in terms of how he formed his business mind and the connections that you will develop a program MBA. When you are getting your masters degree online, you learn every subject related to money & the administration of business such as accounting, finance, organization behavior, operations, research & etc. The MBA courses equip you with the knowledge & skills needed in business to help you achieve your career goal.

You may not need an MBA to be a CEO or a vice president in an enterprise if your family members are the main shareholders of the company and you can be appointed to these positions without having an MBA. If you are under employment and you have a career goal to achieve a Senior Manager or a higher position, you need to prove their ability to position and run out colleagues who compete with you for the same career achievement . An experience of operation of the field with good management skills is the basic requirement for an administrative position.

You can build your working experience along your career path as an MBA program to provide advanced knowledge of business administration and formed his business mind so that you are ready to face your challenge when you are promoted to a management position.

The labor market is very competitive today and the demand for qualified education for many positions has increased. When more than one candidate competing for a manager position, the boss definitely choose the most qualified employee who has good working experience and strong background of
education. online masters degree programs, advanced knowledge in business management degree and can place you in a good position to gain competence in the position of administrative work.

Yes, you can learn beyond the knowledge of management with his experience of running and you can be promoted to a managerial position based on knowledge gain with your working experience. This only true if the boss recognizes, that choose to promote your colleague who has an MBA degree? What if you want to advance your career to another company that you need an original evidence to show the company you are the right candidate for the manager position? The MBA degree may be your written document to show that you have a qualification that meets the requirement of the vacancy.

In short, an MBA is not an obligation for you to be successful in your career, but an MBA equips you with advanced knowledge of business administration to compete in this market’s competitive job.